Legacy of the integration strategy and the state of the European Union
Kırıkkale University, Department of International Relations
Data publikacji: 30-06-2018
JoMS 2013;19(4):159–185
This article outlines the main logic and dynamics behind European integration and the historical conditions that created it. This is fundamental to understand the working of the EU, crises it experiences and the future of integration. One of the main goals of the article is to emphasize the conditions that shaped the thoughts of the founding fathers of the EU, and the general approach towards solving Europe’s problems, following WWII. First, the German factor in European history is highlighted for a better understanding of European logic of integration. Then, strategies such as prioritization of economic interests over the political ones, selective forgetting and selective remembering, focusing on small details to achieve significant results, legal problem solving for political issues, and emphasizing soft power approaches, besides ideas like pluralism, are discussed. Here, a special emphasis was placed on the strategy of using crises as opportunities to diminish state sovereignty for the sake of integration. The last part of the article contrasts the integrative logic with the current state of mind in Europe and discusses the problems caused by the departure from the European logic, especially in recent decades. In that context, the status of Turkey and the problems it faces in the accession process are elaborated as an exemplary case with an emphasis on the Cyprus issue.
Angell, N. (2007) The Great Illusion, New York: Cosimo Classics.
Bachoff, T. (1999) The German Problem Transformed. Institutions, Politics, and Foreign Policy, 1945-1995, University of Michigan.
Ball, G. W. (1991) “Introduction”, Douglas Brinkley and Clifford Hackett (eds.), Jean Monnet: The Path to European Unity, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Bauman, Z. (1997). Post modernity and Its Discontents, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Chase, J.L. (1952) “The Development of the Morgenthau Plan Through the Quebec Conference,” The Journal of Politics, Vol. 16, No: 2 pp. 324-359.
Cooper, R. (2012) “Rise of the Greek neo-Nazis: Ultra-right Party Golden Dawn Wants to Force Immigrants into Work Camps and Plant Landmines Along Turkish Border,” Daily Mail, 7 May 2012, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/new....
Copenhagen European Council 12 and 13 December 2002, Presidency Conclusions, POLGEN 84, 15917/02, Brussels, 29 January 2003, p. 3, http://www.consilium.europa.eu....
Coppieters, B., Huysseune, M., Emerson, M., Tocci N., Vahl, M. (2003). European Institutional Models as Instruments of Conflict Resolution In the Divided States of the European Periphery. CEPS Working Document, No 195.
Coppieters, B., Emerson M., Huysseune M., et. al, (2004) Europeanization and Conflict Resolution, Case Studies from the European Periphery, Gent: Academia Press.
Diez, T., Stetter, S., Albert, M., (2006) The European Union and Border Conflicts: The Transformative Power of Integration. International Organization, Vol. 60, No 3 (July 2006), pp. 563-593.
Giannakopoulos, A. (2004). What is to Become of Turkey in Europe? European Identity and Turkey’s EU Accession, Perceptions, pp. 59-72.
Jenkins, R. (1977). Europe’s Present Challenge and Future Opportunity”, President of the Commission of the European Communities, Florence, 27 October 1977, http://aei.pitt.edu/4404/1/440....
Kagan, R. (2003). Of Paradise and Power: American and Europe in the New World Order, London: Atlantic Books.
Kupchan, Ch. (2010). As Nationalism Rises, Will the European Union Fall?. The Washington Post, 29 August. http://www.washingtonpost.com/....
Manners, I. (2002). Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?” Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol .40 No 2, pp. 235-258.
Michalski, A. (2005). The EU as a Soft Power: the Force of Persuasion,” in J. Melissen (ed.), The New Public Diplomacy. The New Soft Power in International Relations, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 124-144.
Özdemir, H. (2012). Avrupa Mantığı. Avrupa Bütünleşmesinin Teori ve Dinamikleri, Istanbul: Boğaziçi University Press.
Rupnik, J.(ed.) (2011). The Western Balkans and the EU: “The Hour of Europe” Chaillot Papers, 126, European Union Institute for Security Studies. Sarrazin Strikes Again, German Author Says Berlin Is Hostage to Holocaust in Euro Crisis. Der Spiegel International Online, 22 May 2012, http://www.spiegel.de/internat....
Schlesinger, P. (1992) Europeanness’ – A New Cultural Battleground?. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, Vol. 5, No 2, pp. 11-23.
Spinelli, A., Rossi E. (2003). Ventotene Manifesto, B. F. Nelsen, A. Stubb (ed.), The European Union. Readings on the Theory and Practice of the European Integration, Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, s. 3-6.
Tocci, N. (2002). Cyprus and the European Union Accession Process: Inspiration for Peace or Incentive for Crisis?. Turkish Studies, Vol. 3 No 2, pp. 104-138.
Waever, O. (1995). Identity, Integration, and Security. Solving the Sovere ignty Puzzle in the EU Studies,” Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 389-431.
The World from Berlin: Merkel’s Rhetoric in Integration Debate is ‘Inexcusable’ Der Spiegel International Online, 18 October 2010, http://www.spiegel.de/internat....