Threat of ransomware attack in Europe
More details
Hide details
Warsaw School of Economics
Submission date: 2023-07-10
Final revision date: 2023-10-01
Acceptance date: 2023-10-01
Publication date: 2023-10-31
Corresponding author
Małgorzata Poniatowska-Jaksch   

Warsaw School of Economics
JoMS 2023;52(3):379-395
A negative consequence of the digitization of the economy is the development of digital crime, and in this group a ransomware attack in the Ra aS model is a very high threat. The aim of the article is an attempt to determine the scale and identification of directions (sectors) of ransomware attacks in 11 EU countries in connection with the integration of digital technologies by enterprises and the level of social digital competence.

Material and methods:
The separation groups of countries into those with a high, medium and low level of ransomware made it possible to use the authorial synthetic indication constructed on the basis of the taxonomic method of development pattern (Sophos, Comparitech, DESI database).

The research shows the luck of interdependence between synthetic indicator of ransomware and the variables considered to be key signs of the progressing digitization of the economy. The most vulnerable sectors to attack are: business, government administration and the health sector.

In Europe, a ransomware attack is determined by the ability to obtain a high ransom, therefore organizations with a high willingness to pay for fear of losing their reputation, become the greatest target. The choice of an organization - a potential victim of an attack, is not affected by its IT level or digital competences of employees. The platform model adopted by cybercriminals, is characteristic of global technology companies, whose the basis for success is advanced technologies and above-average digital competence of employees. RaaS model appears to be a major challenge for cybersecurity in the 21st century.

Ahlgren, M. (2023). 50+ Cybersecurity Statistics, Facts & Trends for 2023. Dostęp 22.05.2023 z:
Clancy, M. (2021). Introducing the Ransomware Economy. Pobrano 11.05.2023 z:
ENISA (2022). Threat landscape for ransomware attacks. Pobrano 10.05.2023 z:
eSentir (2023). Stop It Before It Spreads. Pobrano 11.05.2023 z:
European Commision (2022). Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) 2022. Dostęp 24.04.2023 z:
European Commission (2020). The EU's Cybersecurity Strategy for the Digital Decade. Brussels.
Evans P. C., Gawer A. (2016). The Rise of the Platform Enterprise: A Global Survey. The Emerging Platform Economy Series.
Feilner, M. (2021). “Ransomware as a Service” as a Business Model: Why the Business of Extortion Flourishes. Pobrano 13.04.2023 z:
Gawer, A. (2014). Bridging Differing Perspectives on Technological Platforms: Toward an Integrative Framework, 43(7), 1239–1249. Research Policy.
Gawer, A., Cusumano, M.A. (2014). Platforms and Innovation. w: Dodgson, D.M. Gann, N. Phillips (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management, 649 -656. Oxford University Press,.
Hernandez-Castro,J., Cartwright, E., Stepanova, A. (2017), Economic Analysis of Ransomware, 1-14. Political Economy: Government Expenditures & Related Policies eJournal. Pobrano 18.04.2023 z:
Jereth. (2021). Forget the dark web: ransomware gangs weaponize social media to pressure victims. Pobrano 18.05.2023 z:
Kenney, M., Rouvinen, P., Seppälä, T., Zysman, J. (2019). Platforms and industrial change, 26(8), 871–879. Industry And Innovation.
Kenney, M., Zysman, J. (2016). The rise of the platform economy. 32(3), 61-69. Issues in Science and Technology.
Kusiak-Winter, R. (2021). Kierunki i etapy rozwoju e-administracji publicznej. w: R. Kusiak-Winter, J. Korczak (red.), Ewolucja elektronicznej administracji publicznej, 15-27. Prawnicza i Ekonomiczna Biblioteka Cyfrowa. Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego.
Lee, G., Kwak, Y.H. (2012). An Open Government Maturity Model for Social Media-Based Public Engagement, 29(4), 492-503. Government Information Quarterly.
Lewis, J. (2018). Economic Impact of Cybercrime - No Slowing Down. Dostęp10.05.2023 z: https://csis-website-prod.s3.a....
Moody, R. (2023). Map of worldwide ransomware attacks. Dostęp 23.05.2023 z:
Pakulska, T. (2017). Otoczenie przedsiębiorstw w sharing economy. w: M. Poniatowska-Jaksch, R. Sobiecki (red.), Gospodarka współdzielenia, 39-54. OW SGH.
Pakulska, T., Poniatowska-Jaksch, M. (2021). Platformizacja korporacji transnarodowych. OW SGH.
Parker, G. G., Van Alstyne, M. W., Choudary S. P. (2016). Platform Revolution: How Networked How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy - and How to Make Them Work for You. W.W. Norton & Company Inc.
Petrucco, C. (2010). Wikipedia as Training Resource for Developing Digital Competences.,1(3), 29-35. International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence.
Seufert,S., Scheffler, N. (2016). Developing Digital Competences of Vocational Teachers, 7(1), 50-65. International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence.
Sophos (2022). The State of Ransomware 2022. Poprano 18.04.2023 z:
Stec, M. (2013). Wielowymiarowa analiza porównawcza zrównoważonego rozwoju krajów Unii Europejskiej, 58(3), 64-81. Przegląd Statystyczny.
Svistunov, V. M., Grishaeva, S. A., Konovalova, V. G. (2020). Labour Market in Digital Economy: New Opportunities, Requirements and Threats. w: V. V. Mantulenko (red.), Problems of Enterprise Development: Theory and Practice 82, 513-521. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences. European Publisher.
Toulas, B. (2022). Ransomware extortion doesn't stop after paying the ransom. Pobrano 8.05.2023 z: https://www.bleepingcomputer.c....
Treglia, E., Tomassoni, R. (2019). The Development of Digital Competences and Emotional Skills Through the Use of Audio-Visual Technologies, 10(1), 55- 60. International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence.
v.d. Merwe, A., Look, M., Dabrowski, M. (2005). Characteristics and responsibilities involved in a Phishing attack. w: WISICT ’05: proceedings of the 4th international symposium on information and communication technologies, 249–254. Trinity College Dublin.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top