United Nations rules from a Roman law perspective
Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Data publikacji: 30-09-2017
JoMS 2017;34(3):305–325
In Roman law confinement in jail as a means of containment of the prisoner to his subsequent trial and conviction, which coincides with situations in which the Roman legal system to exploit the defendant in sentencing in forced labor or in in metallum or in opus publicum. However, the jail met in Rome a suitable means preventive custody and not punishment, and the Roman law was never released on imprisonment as punishment for free men through judicial, as a result of a crime; therefore the prison was conceived as a means of police coercion or administrative judges, that is a security measure before trial by way of remand or awaiting execution. In this context, we will analyze how Roman law promulgates a series of norms aimed at dignifying the prison for the imprisoned, that is, the improvement in the treatment of prisoners due to the influence of Christianity to humanity as a recurring argument in the imperial legislation.The Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners constitute the universally recognized minimum standards for the management of prisons and the treatment of persons deprived of their liberty and have had immense value and influence in the development of prison laws, policies and practices In Member States around the world, in 2015 it was promulgated under the name Mandela Rules. In this study, we will analyze how some of its principles are already beginning to be glimpsed in Roman law in relation to improvement of the conditions of the confinement´s place.
Robinson, O.F. (2007). Penal Practice and Pen al Policy in Ancient Rome, London,p. 180 y ss.
Krause, J.-U. (1999). Prisions et crimes dans l´Empire romain, en Carcer prision et privation de liberté dans l´antiquité classique, Paris, p. 118 ss.
Lovato, A. (1994). Il carcere nel diritto romano dai Severi a Giustiniano, Bari, p.182. Vid. Dupont, C.L. (1953). Le Droit criminel dans les Constitutions de Constantin. Les infractions, Lille, p. 121.
Lovato, A. (1994). Il carcere nel diritto penale romano dai Severei a Giustiniano, 1994, p. 133 y específicamente 223 ss., plantea la supresión de aut quedando el pasaje Solent praesides in carcere continendos damnare ut in vinculis perpetuis contineantur. El adverbio perpetuis se deduce en su estudio de los escolios Sch. 11 y 12 de Bas. 60.51.8.
Encontramos otras referencias en la obra de Toxaris de Luciano de Samosata que dencunia las condiciones de dos amigos encarcelados, Demetrio y Antifilo vid. Tox, 29: καὶ μήν καὶ τοῦ οἰκἡματος ἡ δυσοσμία καὶ τὸ πνῖγος ἐν ταὐτῶ πολλῶν δεδεμένων καὶ ἐστενοχωρημένων καί μὁλις ἀναπνεόντων, καὶ τοῦ σιδήρου ὁ ψόφος καὶ ὒπνος ταῦτα χαλεπὰ ἧν καὶ ἀφόρητα οἲω ἀνδρί ἐκείνων ἀἡθει καὶ ἀμελετήτω πρὸς οὒτω σκληρὰυ τὴν δὶαιταν.
Lib. Or.45.10: …ὰλλὰ καὶ ὂσα δεῖ παρ᾽ ἐκάστου γενέσθαι τῶ τῆς θύρας κυρίῳ τῷ λύχνον μὲν ἒνα πᾶσι παρεχομὲνῳ.