The food terrorism – the essence and the methods of systemic defense
More details
Hide details
Uniwersytet Gdański, Wydział Zarządzania, Armii Krajowej 101, 81-824 Sopot
Submission date: 2022-11-27
Final revision date: 2023-01-21
Acceptance date: 2023-02-22
Publication date: 2023-04-29
Corresponding author
Małgorzata Zdzisława Wiśniewska   

Uniwersytet Gdański, Wydział Zarządzania, Armii Krajowej 101, 81-824 Sopot
JoMS 2023;50(1):331–349
The phenomenon of food terrorism belongs to one of the many varieties of terrorism and, due to its effects on society, is one of the most dangerous manifestations of criminal activity. As a result of food terrorism, food safety and food security are threatened. The purpose of this paper is to present the general essence of the phenomenon of food terrorism and to identify the requirements of existing systems from the field of management to minimize the consequences associated with it. The rationale for dealing with this topic is the current unstable economic and political situation, especially the ongoing war in Ukraine, prompting organizations to be more concerned than before about the safety of the product, consumers, and their employees.

Material and methods:
Critical analysis of the literature, the method of document analysis, including the legal-dogmatic method, then the comparative method, as well as the method of synthesis, and logical inference.

The paper presents the results of the analysis of existing recognized quality and food safety management systems. The systems were analyzed for their alignment with food defense requirements.

The research confirmed that each of the identified systems contains references to food defense, although not all contain a clear definition of it, a need to develop a defense plan, and conduct a risk assessment. The management systems are generic, which means that organizations should use additional solutions, such as the TACCP (Threat Assessment Critical Control Points) system when implementing a food defense plan.

A Guide to World Food Safety Day, 2021 (2021). World Health Organization, Dostęp 27.11.2022.
Borkowski, R. (2011). Konflikty współczesnego świata. Wydawnictwo AGH.
Chen, H., Liu, S., Chen, Y., Chen, C., Yang, H., Chen, Y. (2020). Food safety management systems based on ISO 22000:2018 methodology of hazard analysis compared to ISO 22000:2005, 25, 23–37. Accreditation and Quality Assurance.
Czym jest norma (b.d.). Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny, Dostęp 27.11.2022.
Dalglish, S.L., Khalid, H., McMahon, S.A. (2020). Document analysis in health policy research: the READ approach, 35(10), 1424–1431. Health Policy and Planning.
Gleick, P.H. (2006). Water and terrorism, 8, 481–503. Water Policy.
Grainger, M. (2010). World Summit on Food Security (UN FAO, Rome, 16–18 November 2009), 20(6), 740–742. Development in Practice.
Havinga, T. Hoevenaars, J., Böcker, A. (2017). Private Food Safety Standards in the EU. Faculty of Law Radboud University Nijmegen.
GFSI – Recognised Certification Programme Owners (b.d.). MyGFSI, Dostęp 27.11.2022.
Governance (b.d.). MyGFSI, Dostęp 27.11.2022.
Food defense (b.d.). FSIS, Dostęp 27.11.2022.
Hu, L., Zheng, Y., Woods, T.A., Kusunose, Y., Buck, S. (2022). The market for private food safety certifications: Conceptual framework, review, and future research directions. Early view. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy.
Joenperä, J., Koskela, T., Lundén, J. (2022). Incidence and characteristics of food-related criminal cases in Finland, 134 (108425). Food Control.
Jurica, K., Vrdoljak, J., Karačonji, I.B. (2019). Food defence systems as an answer to food terrorism, 70(4), 232–255. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology.
Manning, L. (2023). Food defence: types of threat, defence plans and mitigation strategies. W: M.E. Knowles, L.E. Anelich, A.R. Boobis, B. Popping (red.), Present Knowledge in Food Safety: A Risk-Based Approach Through the Food Chain, 536–551. Academic Press.
Mróz-Jagiełło, A., Wolanin, A. (2013). Metoda analizy i krytyki dokumentów w naukach o bezpieczeństwie, 2(6), 109–118. Obronność – Zeszyty Naukowe Wydziału Zarządzania i Dowodzenia Akademii Obrony Narodowej.
Muras, Z. (2019). Podstawy prawa. Wydawnictwo CH Beck.
Owusu-Apenten, R., Vieira, E. (2023). Food Safety Management, GMP & HACCP. W: Elementary Food Science. Food Science Text Series, 217–236, Springer.
PAS 96:2017 (2017). Guide to protecting and defending food and drink from deliberate attack. British Standard Institution.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S.B., Podsakoff, N.P. (2016). Recommendations for Creating Better Concept Definitions in the Organizational, Behavioral, and Social Sciences, 19(2), 159–203. Organizational Research Methods.
Rizzuti, A. (2022). Organised food crime: an analysis of the involvements of organised crime groups in the food sector in England and Italy, 78, 463–482. Crime Law and Social Change.
Schaefer, K.A., Scheitrum, D. (2020). Sewing terror: price dynamics of the strawberry needle crisis, 64, 229–243. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
Soon, J.M., Baines, M.N. (2013). Public and Private Food Safety Standards: Facilitating or Frustrating Fresh Produce Growers, 2(1), 1–19. Laws.
Terrorist Threats to Food (2002). World Health Organization.
Turlejska, H., Pelzner, U., Konecka-Matyjek, E., Wiśniewska, K. (2003). Przewodnik do wdrażania zasad GMP/GHP oraz systemu HACCP w zakładach żywienia zbiorowego. FAPA.
Unnevehr, L. J. (2022). Addressing food safety challenges in rapidly developing food systems, 53, 529–539. Agricultural Economics.
Van der Meulen, B.M.J. (2011). Private food law. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
WHA55.16 (2002). Fifty-fifth world health assembly, Dostęp 27.11.2022.
Wiśniewska, M. (2016). Systemowe zarządzanie obroną żywności przed terroryzmem. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego.
Wiśniewska, M. (2017). CARVER+Shock method and its application in a catering company in Poland, 119(12), 2610–2629. British Food Journal.
Wiśniewska, M.Z., Tarczyńska, A.S. (2022). Chapter 13 – Novel quality assurance systems against intentional contamination in dairy factories. W: A. Gomes da Cruz, C. S. Ranadheera, F. Nazzaro and A.M. Mortazavian (red.), Dairy Foods, 281–310. Woodhead Publishing.
Wytrucie 420 tysięcy pszczół w Tworzymirkach (2021). Portal Pszczelarski, https://www.portalpszczelarski.... Dostęp 27.11.2022.
Zadworny, A. (2021). Tony śniętych karpi, okoni, szczupaków i linów nie trafią na wigilijne stoły. Ktoś zatruł rzeczkę Leśnica, Dostęp 27.11.2022.