Violence against women. Current procedural needs, with special reference to Panamá
Universitat Jaume I Castellón
Data publikacji: 26-10-2018
Data nadesłania: 05-06-2018
Data akceptacji: 11-09-2018
JoMS 2018;38(3):111–132
This article intends to approach the phenomenon of gender violence and a general view of the response that the Administration of Justice must offer battered women, from their perspective as victims in a judicial process. All this, without losing sight of the fact that all procedural systems are susceptible to improvement and that the road to its elimination and the definitive equality between women and men, will be long and complicated, but like any social change, achievable. it should be noted that the purpose of the article is limited to the strict procedural issues related to violence against women, and other issues of crucial importance, such as the empowerment of victims, protective measures, or social aid are left unaddressed requiring a more extensive study than the present one.

Material and methods:
case law, law, international conventions, experience

an overall vision on the current situation

Procedural systems have been adapted mostly due to this new social concern, and have included the recommendations of international human rights organizations to their respective legislations.

1. "Diagnosis on the application of the criminal normative framework regarding the elimination of violence against women in judicial resolutions" (2011) Panamá.
2. "Gender dimensions of agricultural and rural employment: Differentiated pathways out of poverty", (2010) published by The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development and the International Labour Office. Rome.
3. Agreement No. 244 of the Supreme Court of Panama of April 13, 2011 that adopts the letter of rights of the people before justice in the judicial organ of the Republic of Panama.
4. Agreement No. 626 of October 15, 2009, of the Plenary of the Supreme Court of Justice of Panama, approving the institutional policy of access to justice and gender of the judicial organ.
5. ALBERDI, I. (1999)The meaning of gender in the Social Sciences.
6. Case Karen Tayag Vertido against the Philippines of the Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women of the United Nations, September 22, 2010.
7. Case of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights González, Herrera and Benerice (cotton field) against Mexico, of November 16, 2009.
8. Directive 2012/29 / EU of the European Parliament.
9. Inter-American Convention to Prevent, Punish and Eradicate Violence against Women Belém do Pará.
10. Judicial Code of Panama.
11. Law 82/13 of the Republic of Panama.
12. Manual for Legislation on Violence against Women, United Nations, New York, (2010).
13. MONTALBÁN HUERTAS, I. (2006) The Comprehensive Law against Gender Violence 1/2004 as a normative instrument. Balance of one year in the judicial field. Notebooks on Judicial Law IV / 2006.
14. Organic Law on Comprehensive Protection Measures against Gender Violence 1/2004.
15. PAZ RODRÍGUEZ, J (2011) The mechanisms of violence, their consequences for victims and their implications for professional intervention.Digital Training Notebooks of the CGPJ 7/2011.
16. POLO GARCÍA, S. (2012) Basic concepts: domestic violence. Gender violence and gender perspective. Specific characteristics of gender violence. Digital training notebooks 9/2012.
17. Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, (2011).
18. Resolution 65/145 of December 18, (2009), of the General Assembly of the United Nations on "The girl".
19. Resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations 65/228 of Strengthening the responses on crime prevention and criminal justice to violence against women, of December 21, (2010).
20. Strategies and practical measures. Updated model for the elimination of violence against women in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice. 2011 Resolution approved by the UN General Assembly of December 18, 2013.
21. The 100 Brasilia rules on access to justice for people in vulnerable conditions.
22. WALKER, L. (1979) The battered woman syndrome. New York: Sheri W. Sussman. ISBN 9780826170989.