Work and mental functioning of prisoners sentenced to 25 years of imprisonment
More details
Hide details
Uniwersytet Warszawski
Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej w Warszawie
Submission date: 2023-02-08
Final revision date: 2023-09-18
Acceptance date: 2023-11-28
Publication date: 2023-12-30
Corresponding author
Milena Miałkowska-Kozaryna   

Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej w Warszawie
JoMS 2023;53(4):135-148
The aim of the study was to check whether employment of prisoners sentenced to 25 years of imprisonment significantly differentiates their mental functioning.

Material and methods:
The study involved 124 convicts sentenced to 25 years of imprisonment, of whom 78 (63%) were employed at the time of the study. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI, the Goldberg Mental Health Questionnaire GHQ-28, the Mental Resilience Scale adapted by Łukasz Kaczmarek and the proprietary tool entitled Prison Isolation as a Stressful Situation were used to assess selected aspects of mental functioning.

Studies have shown that employed prisoners sentenced to 25 years of imprisonment, compared to those sentenced to the same penalty but not employed, have significantly lower levels of anxiety, better assess their mental health and are characterized by higher mental resilience.

Employing convicts, including those sentenced to long-term sentences, brings measurable benefits. Providing work to prisoners sentenced to 25 years in prison may contribute to their better mental functioning, and in the long term, to a smaller number of extraordinary events or better health - both somatic and mental.

Abdulkadir, H., Girma, M., Gebru, Z., Sidamo, N.B., Temesgen, G., Jemal, K. (2022). Anxiety and its associated factors among inmates in ARBA Minch and JINKA town, southern Ethiopia, 22, 1-10. BMC Psychiatry.
Alós, R., Esteban, F., Jódar, P., Miguélez, F. (2015). Effects of prison work programmes on the employability of ex-prisoners, 12(1), 35–50. European Journal of Criminology.
Atkinson, R., Rostad, K. A. (2003). Can Inmates become an integral part of the US workforce? Urban Institute Press.
Block, J., Kremen, A. M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness, 70(2), 349–361. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Brown, C. (2011). Vocational Psychology and Ex-Offenders’ Reintegration: A Call for Action, 19(3), 333-342. Journal of Career Assessment.
Bushway, S. D. (2006). The problem of prisoner (re)entry, 35(6), 562–565. Contemporary Sociology.
Capece, J. (2020). The effects of probation stipulations on employment quality among people on probation, 59(7), 375-388. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation.
Cherney, A., Fitzgerald, R. (2016). Finding and keeping a job: The value and meaning of employment for parolees, 60(1), 21–37. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.
Decker, S. H., Ortiz, N., Spohn, C., Hedberg, E. (2015). Criminal stigma, race, and ethnicity: The consequences of imprisonment for employment, 43(2), 108–121. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Foucault, M. (1998). Nadzorować i karać. Narodziny więzienia. Aletheia.
Guilbaud, F. (2010). Working in prison: Time as experienced by inmate-workers, 51(5), 41–68. Revue française de sociologie.
Hamilton, J.S., Schneider, J., Kane, E., Jordan, M. (2015). Employment of ex-prisoners with mental health problems, a realistic evaluation protocol, 15(1), 1-8. BMC Psychiatry.
Henriksson, H., Krech, R. (1999). International perspectives. w: D. V. Z. Smit, F. Dünkel (red.), Prison labour: Salvation or slavery?, 297–312. Ashgate Pub Limited.
Hunter, G., Boyce, I. (2009). Preparing for employment: Prisoners’ experience of participating in a prison training programme, 48(2), 117–131. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice.
Kacprzak, A., Kudlińska-Chróścicka, I. (2019). Między pracą socjalną a resocjalizacją. Uwarunkowania pracy socjalnej z (byłymi) więźniami w Polsce, 24, z. 1: 23-39. Zeszyty Pracy Socjalnej.
LeBaron, G. (2012). Rethinking prison labor: Social discipline and the state in historical perspective, 15(3), 327–351. WorkingUSA.
Peled-Laskov, R., Timor, U. (2018). Working bars: Employed prisoners’ perception of professional training and employment in prison, 7, 1–15. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology.
Pierson, A., Price, K., Coleman, S. (2014). Prison labor, 4(1), 12–23. Politics, Bureaucracy & Justice.
Ramakers, A., van Wilsem, J., Nieuwbeerta, P., Dirkzwager, A. (2015). Down before they go in: A study on pre-prison labour market attachment, 21(1), 65–82. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.
Saylor, W. G., Gaes, G. G. (1997). Training inmates through industrial work participation and vocational and apprenticeship instruction, 1(2), 32–43. Corrections Management Quarterly.
Shea, E. (2005). Les paradoxes de la normalisation du travail pénitentiaire en France et en Allemagne, 29(3), 349–365. Déviance et société.
Szczepanik, R. (2016). Rola zatrudnienia w procesie odchodzenia od aktywności przestępczej i osłabienia wizerunku recydywisty, nr 92 (III), 73-96. Przegląd Więziennictwa Polskiego.
Tadesse, E., Merdassa, E., Abdisa, E., Tolossa, T. (2022). Magnitude and associated factors of depression among prisoners in Wollega zones, Oromia region, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study, 17(3), 1-10. PloS one.
Uggen, C. (2000). Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: A duration model of age, employment, and recidivism, 65, 529–546. American Sociological Review.
Western, B., Kling, J. R., Weiman, D. F. (2001). The labor market consequences of incarceration, 47(3), 410–427. Crime & Delinquency.
Wrześniewski, K., Sosnowski, T., Jaworowska, A., Fecenec, D. (2011). Inwentarz Stanu i Cechy Lęku. Polska adaptacja STAI. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top