The capital of women's managerial careers in small and medium-sized enterprises
More details
Hide details
Lublin University of Technology
WSB University
Humanitas University
Rzeszów University of Technology
Submission date: 2023-11-30
Acceptance date: 2023-12-01
Publication date: 2023-12-18
Corresponding author
Małgorzata Katarzyna Smolarek   

Humanitas University
JoMS 2023;54(Numer specjalny 5):291-317
The article aims to present the issue of women's managerial career capital in SME.

Material and methods:
The subject of the research presented in the article is the capital of women's managerial careers in the context of SME. The following research questions were formulated: 1. What types of career capital are important for the development of women's managerial careers? 2. What factors influence the success of female managers in their professional careers? 3. What are the key competencies of women performing managerial functions? The research sample consisted of N=742 respondents. The article is based on literature studies, both domestic and international. A systematic review of the literature served to clarify the cognitive gap. Then, our own research was conducted using the diagnostic survey method.

The research shows that the professional success of the surveyed women is closely related to improving qualifications, balance between all spheres of life, recognition in the professional group, self-fulfillment, and effectiveness in action. At the same time, women do not attach much importance to financial satisfaction and formal manifestations of power, which promotes good communication and translates into effective motivation of subordinates to work effectively, as well as to creativity, innovation, and sharing problems.

As a result of a critical analysis of literature and own research, the following conclusions were formulated: the surveyed women are aware that educational capital does not guarantee further success in their managerial career and should be constantly developed and improved. As in the case of other forms of career capital, it follows that the accumulation of career capital has a direct impact on the professional success of women in managerial positions.

Adomaitiene, J., Zubrickiene, I., (2010). Career Competences and Importance of Their Development in Planning of Career Perspective, nr 4, Tiltai.
Adeyinka-Ojo, S. (2018). A strategic framework for analysing employability skills deficits in rural hospitality and tourism destinations, 27, 47-54. Tourism Management Perspectives.
Baldner, C., Pierro, A. (2019). The Trials of Women Leaders in the Workforce: How a Need for Cognitive Closure Can Influence Acceptance of Harmful Gender Stereotypes, 80 (9), 565-577. Sex Roles.
Bańka A., (2005). Proaktywność a tryby samoregulacji, Poznań Warszawa.
Bohdziewicz, P. (2012). Koncepcja kapitału kariery zawodowej jako wyznacznika indywidualnej konkurencyjności na współczesnym rynku pracy, nr 248. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu.
Brescoll, V.L. (2012). Who Takes the Floor and Why, 56 (4), 622-641. Administrative Science Quarterly.
Cybal-Michalska, A. (2012). The Contemporary Society, Changes in the Job World – Challenges for the Future, nr 1. Kultura-Społeczeństwo-Edukacja.
Duberley, J., Cohen, L. (2010). Gendering career capital: An investigation of scientific careers, 76(2), 187-197. Journal of Vocational Behavior.
Dzieńdziora, J., Smolarek, M. Wróbel, M. (2018). Kapitał kariery jako determinanta rozwoju kariery zawodowej kobiet i mężczyzn województwa śląskiego, 7/2018, 55-68. Ekonomika i Organizacja Przedsiębiorstw.
Gross-Gołacka, E. (2018), Zarządzanie różnorodnością w kierunku zróżnicowanych zasobów ludzkich w organizacji, Difin, Warszawa.
Hays. Kobiety na rynku pracy. Raport 2021.
HKR (2019). Manager w szpilkach, Dostęp 09.09.2023.
Houldsworth, E., Jones, K., McBain, R., Brewster Ch. (2023). Career capital and the MBA: how gender capital supports career capital development, 48(2), 299-313. Studies in Higher Education.
KPMG, LLP (2019). KPMG Women’s Leadership Study Risk, Resilience, Reward: Mastering the Three R’s Is the Key to Women’s Success in the Workplace, KPMG. Accessed 12 May 2023,
Mackay, M. (2017). Professional development seen as employment capital, Volume 43, Issue 1, January, 140 – 1551. Professional Development in Education.
Madera, J.M., Hebl, M.R., Martin, R. C. (2009). Gender and Letters of Recommendation for Academia: Agentic andCommunal Differences, 94 (6), 1591–9. Journal of Applied Psychology.
Mazur, J., Pokojska, J., Śledziewska, K., Włoch, R. (2021). Tytanki pracy. Kobiety na rynku pracy w dobie cyfrowej transformacji. Raport 2021, Delab Dostęp 12.09.2023.
Ortiz-Ospina, E, Roser, M. (2018). Economic Inequality by Gender, Dostęp 09.09.2023.
Piróg, D., Kilar, W., Rettinger, R. (2021). Self-assessment of competences and their impact on the perceived chances for a successful university-to-work transition: the example of tourism degree students in Poland, Volume 27, Issue 4, 367-384. Tertiary Education and Management,.
Sharen, C.M., McGowan, R.A. (2019). Invisible or clichéd: How are women represented in business cases? “Journal of Management Education”, 43(2), ss. 129–173.
Smolbik-Jęczmień, A. (2016). Akumulacja kapitału kariery jako istotny czynnik warunkujący osiągnięcie sukcesu w kształtowaniu własnej kariery zawodowej, Vol. 14, No. 2/2/2016, 337-349. Zarządzanie i Finanse Journal of Management and Finance.
Sullivan, S.E., Emmerson, R., (2000). Recommendations for successfully navigating the boundaryless career: From theory to practice, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green.
Turska, E. (2014). Kapitał kariery ludzi młodych. Uwarunkowania i konsekwencje, 3148. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Śląskiego w Katowicach.
Wilk, A., Lewicka, D., Karp-Zawlik, P. i Pec, M. (2020). Percepcja uwarunkowań karier kobiet menedżerów średniego szczebla. 4(54), 126–143. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, sectio H-Oeconomia.
Wiśniewska-Szałek, A. (2007). Płeć w miejscu pracy – rola kobiety we współczesnym zarządzaniu, (5), 202-212. Prace Naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej we Wrocławiu.
Wziątek-Staśko, A. (2017), Ocena skuteczności motywatorów w opinii menedżerów różnych generacji – analiza na podstawie badań własnych, 3-4, 153-168. Zarządzanie Zasobami Ludzkimi.
Vinkenburg, C. J., Weber T. (2012). Managerial career patterns: A review of the empirical evidence, 80, 592-607. Journal of Vocational Behaviowr.
Xu, Q., Zhang, C., Cui, Y., Hu, X., Yu, S. (2023). Career Capital and Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Career Adaptability and Identity of Normal Student, Volume 169, Issue 1-2, 235-253. Social Indicators Research.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top