InsurTech and private international law considerations
More details
Hide details
Krakowska Akademia im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego
Submission date: 2023-05-30
Acceptance date: 2023-11-20
Publication date: 2023-12-30
Corresponding author
Mariusz Załucki   

Krakowska Akademia im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego
JoMS 2023;53(4):240-262
InsurTech is a new and interesting phenomenon, linked to the use of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence or distributed ledger technology, in the insurance sector. The factual and legal nature of relationships in this area, due to their heterogeneous and complex international character, raises many questions. Some of these relate to private international law, where conflict situations raise questions such as which law (the law of which state) is the substantive law applicable to resolve these situations. Presenting the complexity of this area, this statement describes possible solutions and reflects on the need and potential of applying private international law in the InsurTech sector. It introduces the InsurTech phenomenon, presents its links with private international law, reflects on the adaptability of existing mechanisms of this law to highly technological legal relations, and concludes by an attempt to indicate how to combine InsurTech and private international law, and whether this is possible at all.

Material and methods:
The work was written using standard scientific methods for legal science. It is primarily a dogmatic work, but also reaches for comparative legal elements. This choice of methods is justified by the presented issues.

The result of the research is an assessment as to the possible use of private international law tools for the problems that arise with InsurTech instruments.

The author points out that the currently known private international law instruments are not suited to the modern requirements of the insurance services sector, especially in the context of the use of artificial intelligence or DLT technology (blockchain, smart contract) in the sector.

Aletras, N., Tsarapatsanis, D., Preotiuc-Pietro, D., & Lampos, V. (2016). Predicting judicial decisions of the European Court of Human Rights: a natural language processing perspective. PeerJ Computer Science, 19(2), 93.
Allam-Firley, D. (2021). Spécificités de l’innovation dans les services d’assurance. Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Nord.
Aouidef, Y., Ast, F., & Deffains, B. (2021). Decentralized Justice: A Comparative Analysis of Blockchain Online Dispute Resolution Projects. Frontiers in Blockchain, 4(3), 1–8.
Audit, M. (2021). Le droit international privé confronté à la blockchain. Revue critique de droit international privé, (4), 669–694.
Basedow, J., Rühl, G., Ferrari, F., & de Miguel Asensio, P. (Eds.). (2017). Encyclopedia of Private International Law. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Batiffol, H. (1966). The Objectives of Private International Law. The American Journal of Comparative Law, 15(1/2), 159–163.
Beenken, M., & Noack, S. (2016). Insurtechs: Viel Schein, aber auch Sein? Zeitschrift Für Versicherungswesen, (4), 114–117.
Blondeau, A. (2021). L’émergence de la blockchain dans les relations contractuelles : Vers une nouvelle forme de confiance algorithmique? Lyon: HAL open science.
Bonomi, A., & Wautelet, P. (2016). Le droit européen des successions. Commentaire du Règlement n°650/2012 du 4 juillet 2012 (2nd ed.). Bruxelles: Bruylant.
Bruce, D., Avis, C., Byrne, M., Gosrani, V., Lim, Z., Manning, J., … Qin, W. (2018). Improving the success of InsurTech opportunities. British Actuarial Journal, 23, 1–34.
Burman, H. (2009). Private International Law. The International Lawyer, 43(2), 741–757.
Campo Comba, M. (2021). The Law Applicable to Cross-border Contracts involving Weaker Parties in EU Private International Law. Cham: Springer.
Chan, L., Hogaboam, L., & Cao, R. (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Insurance. Journal of The Gujarat Research Society, 21(7), 79–91.
Depreeuw, S., & Hubin, J.-B. (2014). Of availability, targeting and accessibility: online copyright infringements and jurisdiction in the EU. Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice, 9(9), 750–764.
Ebers, M., & Navas, S. (Eds.). (2020). Algorithms and Law. Algorithms and Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Finck, M. (2019). Grundlagen und Technologie von Smart Contracts. In M. Fries & B. P. Paal (Eds.), Smart Contracts. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Frick, J., & Barsan, I. M. (2020). InsurTech – Opportunities and Legal Challenges for the Insurance Industry. Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Financier, (2), 56–88.
Guillaume, F. (2019). Aspects of private international law related to blockchain transactions. In D. Kraus, T. Obrist, & O. Hari (Eds.), Blockchains, Smart Contracts, Decentralised Autonomous Organisations and the Law (pp. 49–82). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Hassan, S., & De Filippi, P. (2017). The Expansion of Algorithmic Governance: From Code is Law to Law is Code. Field Actions Science Reports, (Special Issue 17), 88–90.
Idelberger, F. (2018). Connected Contracts Reloaded – Smart Contracts as Contractual Networks. In S. Grundmann (Ed.), European Contract Law in the Digital Age (pp. 205–236). Cambridge: Intersentia.
Kammann, L. (2018). Digitalisierung im Versicherungsvertrieb. Karsruhe: VVW.
Knieper, R. (2019). Von der Vertragsfreiheit zum smart contract. Kritische Justiz, 52(2), 193–202.
Kosters, J. (1920). Public Policy in Private International Law. Yale Law Journal, 29(7), 745–766.
Koulu, R., & Kontiainen, L. (Eds.). (2019). How Will AI Shape the Future of Law? Helsinki: University of Helsinki Legal Tech Lab publications.
Krebs, K. (2019). Internationales Privatrecht. Heidelberg: C. F. Müller.
Landini, S., & Noussia, K. (2023). Insurance Develompents in the Light of the Occurrence of the COVID-19 Pandemic. In M. L. Munoz Paredes & A. Tarasiuk (Eds.), Covid-19 and Insurance (pp. 1–16). Springer.
Lando, O. (1984). The Conflict of Laws of Contracts. General Principles. Recueil Des Cours, 189.
Lessig, L. (1999). Code and other laws od cyberspace. English Journal (Vol. 346). New York: Basic Books.
Lutzi, T. (2017). Internet Cases in EU Private International Law-Developing a Coherent Approach. International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 66(3), 687–721.
Malinowska, K. (2016). Private International Law and On-Line Insurance Contracts. In P. Marano, I. Rokas, & P. Kochenburger (Eds.), The ‘Dematerialized’ Insurance. Distance Selling and Cyber Risks from an International Perspective. Cham: Springer.
Manes, P. (2021). Insurance and the legal challenges of automated decisions. An EU perspective. In I. H.-Y. Chiu & G. Deipenbrock (Eds.), Routledhe Handbook of Financial Technology and Law. London-New York: Routledge.
Marano, P. (2019). Navigating Insurtech: The digital intermediaries of insurance products and customer protection in the EU. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 26(2), 294–315.
Marano, P., & Noussia, K. (Eds.). (2020). InsurTech: A Legal and Regulatory View. Cham: Springer.
Mckamey, M. (2017). Legal Technology: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Law Practice. Appeal: Review of Current Law and Law Reform, 22(22), 45–58.
Medvedeva, M., Vols, M., & Wieling, M. (2020). Using machine learning to predict decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 28(2), 237–266.
Metzger, J. (2018). Decentralized Justice in the Era of Blockchain. International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, 5(1–2), 69.
Morin, G., Nohlen, Y., & Steinmetz, M. (2022). InsurTechs – (R-)Evolution der Wertschöpfungskette. In M. Lister, B. Rolfes, & H. Wessling (Eds.), Neue Geschäftsmodelle für Finanzinstitute – Datenanalyse, Digitale Technologien und Wertewandel als Impulsgeber (pp. 49–67). Wiesbaden: Springer.
Neale, F. R., Drake, P. P., & Konstantopoulos, T. (2020). InsurTech and the Disruption of the Insurance Industry. Journal of Insurance Issues, 43(2), 64–96.
Ostertag, J., Morvan, C., Metzger, M., & Levy, S. (2022). Global InsurTech Industry Report 2022. Cologne: Drake Star.
Pouget, J. (2019). La réparation du dommage impliquant une intelligence artificielle. Marseille: Université d’Aix-Marseille.
Reyes, C. L. (2018). Cryptolaw for Distributed Ledger Technologies: A Jurisprudential Framework. Jurimetrics, 58(3), 283–302.
Ruhl, G. (2014). The Protection of Weaker Parties in the Private International Law of the European Union: A Portrait of Inconsistency and Conceptual Truancy. Journal of Private International Law, 10(3), 335–358.
Russel, S. J., & Norvig, P. (2011). Artificial Intelligence. A Modern Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Savelyev, A. (2017). Contract law 2.0: ‘Smart’ contracts as the beginning of the end of classic contract law. Information and Communications Technology Law, 26(2), 116–134.
Sibony, A. L. (2020). Did you say ‘theories of choice’?: On the limited and variable appetite for theories in consumer law. Cashiers Du CeDIE, (1), 115–135.
Szostek, D. (2019). Blockchain and the Law. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Szpyt, K. (Ed.). (2022). Insurtech. Nowe technologie w branży ubezpieczeń. Warszawa: C. H. Beck.
Tatar, U., Gokce, Y., & Nussbaum, B. (2020). Law versus technology: Blockchain, GDPR, and tough tradeoffs. Computer Law and Security Review, 38, 1–11.
Yeung, K. (2019). Regulation by blockchain: The emerging battle for supremacy between the code of law and code as law. Modern Law Review, 82(2), 207–239.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top