Is it safe to drive a vehicle with a steering equipment positioned on the same side as the direction of the traffic – driving simulation experiments
More details
Hide details
University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28 Str., 00-927 Warsaw, Poland
The Main School of Fire Service, Juliusza Słowackiego 52/54 Str., 01-629 Wassaw, Poland
Police Academy in Szczytno, Marszałka Józefa Piłsudskiego 111 Str., 12-100 Szczytno, Poland
Submission date: 2023-03-14
Final revision date: 2023-03-28
Acceptance date: 2023-05-16
Publication date: 2023-07-29
Corresponding author
Grzegorz Gudzbeler   

University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28 Str., 00-927 Warsaw, Poland
JoMS 2023;51(2):204–235
For the purposes of the conducted research, the following main objective was defined: Examine how does the movement of RHD vehicles in RHT traffic affect the safety of road users.

Material and methods:
The experiment used a vehicle driving simulator. Research sample was selected by means of a survey on socio-demographic factors. During experiment participants were driving at first run RHT vehicles in RHT traffic and in second run a vehicle adapted to left-hand traffic in right-hand traffic. They had to drive a specific route on the simulator during both runs, with a defined traffic load. During individual journeys, the key information to assess the level of safety was collected by researchers.

The results of the conducted research clearly show that the risk of road accidents when using LHT vehicles in RHT road traffic is significantly higher. The results show a significant increase in the number of accidents and collisions when participants used an LHT vehicle in an RHT. The number of traffic incidents (accidents and collisions) was approx. 50% higher when driving RHD vehicles. At the same time, the validity of the use of simulation methods in the assessment of potential organizational changes in road traffic was proved.

Attention should be paid to the social costs of driving LHT vehicles in RHT and the growing number of road accidents. This type of research makes it possible to assess the risks of planned changes and can be used in the development of regulations related to the use of RHD vehicles in RHT traffic.

Abu Dabrh, A. M., Firwana, B., Cowl, C. T., Steinkraus, L. W., Prokop, L. J., Murad, M. H. (2014). Health assessment of commercial drivers: A meta-narrative systematic review, 4 (3). BMJ Open.
Allen, R., Cook, M., Rosenthal, T, (2007). Application of driving simulation to road safety, Special Issue, 5-8. Advances in Transportation Studies.
Antonson, H., Mårdh, S., Wiklund, M., Blomqvist, G. (2009). Effect of surrounding landscape on driving behaviour: A driving simulator study, 29 (4), 493-502. Journal of Environmental Psychology.
Auberlet, J.-M., Rosey, F., Anceaux, F., Aubin, S., Briand, P., Pacaux, M.-P., Plainchault, P. (2012). The impact of perceptual treatments on driver’s behavior: From driving simulator studies to field tests—First results, 45, 91-98. Accident & Analysis, Prevention.
Banks, T., Freeman, J., Davey, J. (2016). An Engineering or Behavioural Approach? A Study into Employees’ Perceptions Regarding the Effectiveness of Occupational Road Safety Initiatives, 2 (7), 1-11. Safety.
Bedard, M., Parkkari, M., Weaver, B., Riendeau, J., Dahlquist, M. (2010). Assessment of Driving Performance Using a Simulator Protocol: Validity and Reproducibility, 64 (2), 336-340. American Journal of Occupational Therapy.
Blaauw, G. J. (1982). Driving Experience and Task Demands in Simulator and Instrumented Car: A Validation Study, 24 (4), 473-486. Human Factors.
Brookhuis, K. A., de Waard, D. (2010). Monitoring drivers’ mental workload in driving simulators using physiological measures, 42 (3), 898-903. Accident Analysis & Prevention.
Calvi, A., Benedetto, A., Blasiis, M. D. (2012). A driving simulator study of driver performance on deceleration lanes, 45, 195-203. Accident Analysis & Prevention.
Campos, J. L., Bedard, M., Classen, S., Delparte, J. J., Hebert, D. A., Hyde, N., Law, G., Naglie, G., Yung, S. (2017). Guiding Framework for Driver Assessment Using Driving Simulators, 8, 1428. Frontiers in Psychology.
Chaczko, Z., Kulbacki, M., Gudzbeler, G., Alsawwaf, M., Thai-Chyzhykau, I., Wajs-Chaczko, P. (2020). Exploration of Explainable AI in Context of Human-Machine Interface for the Assistive Driving System. w: N. T. Nguyen, K. Jearanaitanakij, A. Selamat, B. Trawinski, S. Chittayasothorn (red.), Intelligent Information and Database Systems, 507–516, Wydawnictwo Springer International Publishing.
Comi, A., Polimeni, A., Balsamo, Ch. (2022). Road Accident Analysis with Data Mining Approach: evidence from Rome, 62, 798-805. Transportation Research Procedia.
Crundall, D. E., Underwood, G. (1998). Effects of experience and processing demands on visual information acquisition in drivers, 41 (4), 448-458. Ergonomics.
Davenne, D., Lericollais, R., Sagaspe, P., Taillard, J., Gauthier, A., Espie, S., Philip, P. (2012). Reliability of simulator driving tool for evaluation of sleepiness, fatigue and driving performance, 45, 677-682. Accident Analysis & Prevention.
De Pauw, E., Daniels, S., Van Herck, S., Wets, G. (2015). Safety Effects of Protected Left-Turn Phasing at Signalized Intersections: An Empirical Analysis, 1, 94-102. Safety.
de Winter, J. C., de Groot, S., Mulder, M., Wieringa, P. A., Dankelman, J., Mulder, J. A. (2009). Relationships between driving simulator performance and driving test results, 52 (2), 137-153. Ergonomics.
de Winter, J., Happee, R. (2012). Advantages and Disadvantages of Driving Simulators: A Discussion, 47-50. Proceedings of Measuring Behavior.
El-Tantawy, S. (2009). Safety evaluation of truck lane restriction strategies using microsimulation modeling, 2099 (1), 123-131. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.
Godley, S. T., Triggs, T. J., Fildes, B. N. (2002), Driving simulator validation for speed research, 34 (5), 589-600. Accident Analysis & Prevention.
Hatfield, J., Chamberlain, T. (2008). The impact of in-car displays on drivers in neighbouring cars: Survey and driving simulator experiment, 11 (2), 137–146. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour.
Ihemedu-Steinke, Q. C., Rangelova, S., Weber, M., Erbach, R., Meixner, G., Marsden, N. (2017). Simulation Sickness Related to Virtual Reality Driving Simulation, w: S. Lackey, J. Chen (red.), Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, 521-532. Wydawnictwo Springer International Publishing.
Konstantopoulos, P., Chapman, P., Crundall, D. (2010). Driver’s visual attention as a function of driving experience and visibility. Using a driving simulator to explore drivers’ eye movements in day, night and rain driving, 42 (3), 827-834. Accident Analysis & Prevention.
Lay, M. G. (1992). Ways of the World: A History of the World’s Roads and of the Vehicles That Used Them. Rutgers University Press.
Leeming, J. (2007). Road Accidents: prevent or punish? Quinta Press.
Mahmud, S.M.S. (2016). Traditional approaches to Traffic Safety Evaluation (TSE): application challenges and future directions, 242. Bridging East West.
Meuleners, L., Fraser, M. (2008). Review of the Wa state Black Spot Program: A Literature Review of Australian and International Black Spot Programs Centre For Population Health Research, Perth: School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology.
Raju, N., Farah, H. (2021). Evolution of Traffic Microsimulation and Its Use for Modeling Connected and Automated Vehicles, 1-29. Journal of Advanced Transportation.
Schoner, H.-P. (2018). Simulation in development and testing of autonomous vehicles, w: M. Bargende, H.-C. Reuss, J. Wiedemann. Wiesbaden (red.), Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium, 1083–1095. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
Shinar, D. (1984). The traffic conflict technique: A subjective vs. objective approach, 15 (4), 153-157. Journal of Safety Research.
Soares, S., Lobo, A., Ferreira, S. (2021). Takeover performance evaluation using driving simulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 13 (47), 1-18. European Transport Research Review.
Tageldin, A., Sayed, T. (2019). Models to evaluate the severity of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts in five cities, 15 (2), 354-375. Transportmetrica A: Transport Science.
Taheri, S., Matsushita, K.,, Sasaki, M. (2017). Virtual Reality Driving Simulation for Measuring Driver Behavior and Characteristics, 7, 123-132. Journal of Transportation Technologies.
Tavakkoli, M., Torkashvand-Khah, Z., Fink, G., Takian, A., Kuenzli, N., de Savigny, D., Cobos Muñoz, D. (2022). Evidence from the Decade of Action for Road Safety: A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries, 43. Public Health Reviews.
The European Court of Justice, Case C-639/11. The European Commission v. The Republic of Poland. Dostęp 22.04.2022 z
Underwood, G., Crundall, D., Chapman, P. (2011). Driving simulator validation with hazard perception, 14 (6), 435-446. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour.
Wiethoff, M., Brookhui, K., de Waard, D. (2012). A methodology for improving road safety by novel infrastructural and invehicle technology combinations, 4, 67-77. European Transport Research Review.
Wiethoff, M., de Waard, L., Walta, K.A. (2006). Implementation scenarios and concepts towards forgiving roads. In-Safety Deliverable D1.1. In-Safety project 506716.
Zhang, L., Zhao, Q., Yu, P. (2022). Research on integrated simulation platform for urban traffic control connecting simulation and practice, 12 (4536). Science Reports.