Is it safe to drive a vehicle with a steering equipment positioned on the same side as the direction of the traffic – driving simulation experiments
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University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28 Str., 00-927 Warsaw, Poland
The Main School of Fire Service, Juliusza Słowackiego 52/54 Str., 01-629 Wassaw, Poland
Police Academy in Szczytno, Marszałka Józefa Piłsudskiego 111 Str., 12-100 Szczytno, Poland
Submission date: 2023-03-14
Final revision date: 2023-03-28
Acceptance date: 2023-05-16
Publication date: 2023-07-29
Corresponding author
Grzegorz Gudzbeler   

University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28 Str., 00-927 Warsaw, Poland
JoMS 2023;51(2):204-235
For the purposes of the conducted research, the following main objective was defined: Examine how does the movement of RHD vehicles in RHT traffic affect the safety of road users.

Material and methods:
The experiment used a vehicle driving simulator. Research sample was selected by means of a survey on socio-demographic factors. During experiment participants were driving at first run RHT vehicles in RHT traffic and in second run a vehicle adapted to left-hand traffic in right-hand traffic. They had to drive a specific route on the simulator during both runs, with a defined traffic load. During individual journeys, the key information to assess the level of safety was collected by researchers.

The results of the conducted research clearly show that the risk of road accidents when using LHT vehicles in RHT road traffic is significantly higher. The results show a significant increase in the number of accidents and collisions when participants used an LHT vehicle in an RHT. The number of traffic incidents (accidents and collisions) was approx. 50% higher when driving RHD vehicles. At the same time, the validity of the use of simulation methods in the assessment of potential organizational changes in road traffic was proved.

Attention should be paid to the social costs of driving LHT vehicles in RHT and the growing number of road accidents. This type of research makes it possible to assess the risks of planned changes and can be used in the development of regulations related to the use of RHD vehicles in RHT traffic.

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